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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
in the Lions’ Court (Patio de los Leones),
(Al Ħamrā) Palace,
even the fiercest anti-Islamic sentiments of the
Christian-led reconquerers of Andalusia (Al-Andalus)
could bring themselves to destroying the most
Arabic artistic heritage, much of
verses in decorative Arabic
information: Arabic is one of the most widely used language in the world. It is used in
many countries as a first language and in even more countries as a foreign
language. The classical literary dialect of the Holy Qur’ān (Koran), the sacred scriptures of Islam, serves as the common and sacred language
throughout the Islamic world.
The vast majority of Arabic speakers are Moslems,
Christian, Druse and Jewish Arabic-speaking communities as well.
Arabic has had enormous influences
on other languages used throughout the Islamic world and in neighboring areas.
numerous local spoken varieties. A uniting element among all Arabic speakers
is a literary Arabic dialect that, derived from Qur’ānic Arabic (Al-Luġatu-l-‘Arabiyyatu-l-Fuşħā “the most eloquent Arabic language”),
is used as a secondary language variety in writing, in oratory and in international
varieties of Arabic the following are considered most prominent:
Southern Spain and Portugal (extinct but of literary
Eastern Saudi Arabia, Western Iraq, Eastern Syria,
Eastern Jordan, Oman
Egypt (widely understood due to media)
Bahrain, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab
Emirates, Qatar, Oman
Mauritania, Western Sahara
Saudi Arabia (west coast and north), Eastern Jordan,
Lebanon, Palestine, Western Syria, Western Jordan, Turkey,
Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Libya, Malta*
Najd region of Saudi Arabia
Northern Syria, Southeastern Turkey
Yemen, Southern Saudi Arabia
all varieties, Maltese is the only one that attained separate language
Arabic is usually
written using the Arabic script. The Arabic script developed from the North
Arabian script which was derived from the Nabatean script, and the Nabatean
script from which also the Hebrew script descended. Short vowels are
in the Holy Qur’ân,
in some poetry and in certain types of textbooks. Judeo-Arabic (Il-Luġa Dyalna “our language,” in Morocco Il-‘Arabiyya Dyalna “our Arabic”)
tends to be written by means of an extended version of the Hebrew script.
Probably in great part due to Judaic-derived Islamic prohibition or reluctance
regarding the depiction of human beings, often expanded to include the
depiction of all creatures, Islamic art developed ornamental art to extraordinary
emanating primarily from visual embellishment of Islamic architecture,
scriptures and accompanying written works. This includes the Arabic
script, for which numerous calligraphic traditions and high, universally
appealing esthetic standards have been developed.
Genealogy: Afro-Asiatic > Semitic > Central > South > Arabic