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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
North Frisian writer, painter and revolutionary Harro Paul
Harring (1798–1870) committed suicide in exile in Saint Helier (St Hélyi, Saint-Hélier) on
Jersey. Both the Channel Islands (British
Crown Dependencies) and mainland Normandy (which belongs to
France) were occupied by German forces during World War II.
Norman is traditionally considered a French dialect group and as such tends to be referred to as “Norman French” or “patois.” An alternative
view that is gaining popularity is that it is a language in its own right.
Norman dialects have written traditions. In general, French orthographic conventions
are used to write them.
main areas in which Norman is used: Normandy (Norman Normaundie, French Normandie)
in Northern France, and the British-administered Channel Islands (Norman Îles
d’la Manche, French Îles anglo-normandes). While the mainland group (Norman normaund, French normand) consists of numerous dialects, there is one variety each on the Channel
Islands Jersey (Jersey Norman Jèrri), Guernsey (Guernsey Norman Guernési) and Sark (Sark Norman Sèr, French Sercq). These insular varieties are natively known as Jèrriais, Guernésiais and Sèrtchais respectively, the latter two for some reason mostly referred to by outsiders
in the Jersey way as Dgèrnésiais and Sercquiais (or Serkyee) respectively, thus demonstrating Jersey dominance. Of these, the
varieties of Jersey and Guernsey have been officially recognized as regional
languages by the British government. The name “French” is still being used, however, even by locals, such as “Jersey French,” sometimes even the label “patois” that to most people connotes inferiority to “good,” “correct” French. Fairly recently extinct is
the variety of the Channel Island Alderney (Alderney Norman Aoeur’gny,
its close relatives French, Walloon, Champenois, Picard and Gallo, Norman belongs
to the Oïl
the Gallo-Romance branch, all
of whose members
developed on Celtic substrates hailing back to Gaulish predominance of the
area. In addition to that, Norman appears to have a North Germanic
adstratum of influences going back to the era when Normandy was invaded and
ruled by Normans (“Northmen”) from Scandinavia.
member of the Norman language is Anglo-Norman which developed in Britain after
(1066) as the language of prestige among English descendants of Norman
occupiers and their English sycophants
and admirers. While Anglo-Norman lost prestige almost three centuries after
the Norman Conquest and finally became extinct, some
Many “French” loans in English are in fact Anglo-Norman loans, such as “cabbage” (< caboche, cf. French chou), “catch” (< cachi; cf. French chasser), “fashion” (< faichon, cf. French façon), “wicket” (< viquet, cf. French guichet), “pocket” (< pouquette, cf. French poche), “fork” (< fouorque, cf. French fourche), “garden” (< gardin, cf. French jardin), “candle” (< caundèle, cf. French chandelle), and “castle” (< castel, cf. French château). As can be seen in these examples, Norman phonology is by and large more conservative
than French phonology.
Genealogy: Indo-European > Italic > Romance > Italo-Western > Western > Gallo-Iberian > Gallo-Romance > Gallo-Rhaetian > Oïl > Norman