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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
Mohandās Karamchand Gāndhī
(Oct. 2. 1869 – Jan. 30. 1948),
a.k.a. Mahatma (“Great Soul”)
and Bapu (“Father” in
the world’s most famous and most
native speaker of Gujarati
Gujarati (also know as Gujerati) is the primary language of the
Gujarati people as well as the primary and official language of India’s Gujarat State, the country’s most industrialized region, also in the union territories Daman and
Diu, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (both of which are wedged between Gujarat and
Maharashtra) and in adjacent areas of neighboring Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
and Maharashtra. One of India’s official languages, it is also used in neighboring Pakistan (mostly in Sindh
Province), furthermore as a minority
more distant urban centers of both India and Pakistan, foremost among these
being the enormous metropolis Mumbai (Bombay) just south of Gujarat in Maharashtra
is used in numerous
as well, such as Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Fiji,
New Zealand, Oman,
Tanzania, Uganda, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Zambia
and Zimbabwe. Altogether, the number of Gujarati speakers worldwide is currently
approaching 50 million.
There are the following Gujarati dialect groups:
· East African
· Standard Gujarati
(including the Mumbai variety)
· Tarimukhi Gujarati has been
influenced by numerous languages, most importantly by Sanskrit, Persian, Hindi, Urdu, Sindhi, Portuguese and English. Being an Indo-Aryan language, it is closely related to Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu, Rajasthani, Panjabi, Marathi, Bengali, Nepali and others, most closely to Sindhi and Kutchi (Khochki).
Pars (Zoroastrian) communities and their descendants elsewhere have adopted Gujarati
as their primary language, using amongst themselves subvarieties with
influences. There are also Jain and Christian minorities that use Gujarati as
language. The most significant religions among Gujarati speakers are Hinduism
and Islam, followers of the former being in the clear majority.
Gujarati is written by means of the Gujarati script, also amongst Muslims. This
script is closely related to the Devanagari script (used for Sanskrit, Hindi,
Nepali, etc.), the Gurmukhi script (used for Panjabi), the Bengali script and other
Indo-Aryan scripts whose origin can be traced back to the Old Aramaic
However, the Gujarati script lacks the horizontal top line that is characteristic
of other such
scripts. As in the case of Bengali, vowel length distinctions are still indicated
orthographically although few or none these distinctions are phonemically preserved
modern varieties. However, these orthographic distinctions are significant when
the Gujarati script is used to write Sanskrit, which
languages of the Indian subcontinent have a dental and
a retroflex consonant series where European languages have
only one. Most Germanic and Slavonic languages have only
an alveolar series for t, d,
n, r and l, most Romance and
Celtic languages only a dental one.
closely related languages, Gujarati has two noteworthy phonological features:
aspiration of both voiceless and voiced plosives and, probably owing to an
ancient Munda or Dravidian substrate, a retroflex series of consonants. Furthermore,
it has two contrastive series of consonants where European languages have only
one. It has a dental series (in which the tip of the tongue touches the front
teeth) and a retroflex series (in which the tip of the tongue is bend back
or upward to touch an area behind the alveolar ridge). They lack a corresponding
alveolar series, which is the default in Germanic languages. In rendering loanwords
and names from English and other Germanic languages, speakers of Gujarati and
related languages thus must choose dental or retroflex substitution. Interestingly,
they tend to choose the retroflex series since it sounds more closely related
to them. This is why retroflexion is a striking characteristic of South Asian “accents” in English.
Among India’s and Pakistan’s
best-known public figures there are numerous native Gujarati speakers, such as
India’s former prime minister Morarji Desai (Feb.
29, 1896 – April 10, 1995), India’s social and political leader Sardar Patel (31 Oct. 1875 – 15
Dec. 1950), Pakistan’s founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah (25 Dec. 1876 – 11 Sept. 1948), and India’s and the world’s famed political and spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi
(Oct. 2. 1869 – Jan. 30. 1948).
languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, English, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Maithili, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu. (Underlined names are those of Indo-Aryan and thus Indo-European languages.)
Genealogy: Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Indo-Aryan > Central