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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
attired Ifugao man
terraced rice fields
Ifugao is a language used in some
mountainous places of the Cordillera Administrative Region on the Philippine
Luzon. It is the native language of most Ifugao people (approximately
150,000) but is also used as a non-native language by some non-Ifugao people
with whom they have regular contacts.
Like some other
ethnic groups of the Philippines’ remote mountainous regions, the Ifugao are often
as aboriginals, and tourism
of their traditional cultural displays, much like of those of the ethnically
and linguistically fairly closely related indigenous communities of nearby
(now Sinicized) Taiwan. Ifugao textiles, costumes, music, dance and especially
their elaborate terraced rice fields attract much attention and admiration.
women in traditional attire
Due to the remoteness of their homelands, the Ifugao and other such communities
and they were thus able to
preserve more of their
pre-colonial culture than most other ethnicities
these islands. Similarly, their languages are far less influenced by European
languages than is usual in these regions. However, these days most Ifugao
people are quite in touch with the rest of the country and are as knowledgeable
about the rest of the world as are other Filipinos, and most of them can
speak Tagalog, Ilocano and English besides their native language. They prefer being referred to as “Ifugao” (Ipugaw, < i pugo ‘from the soil’) to being referred to as “Igorot,” a generic label covering all indigenous ethnicities of the Cordillera region
(the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg/Apayao, Kalinga and Kankana-ey). There
are several distinct varieties of the Ifugao language, most of them having
Batad, Ducligan), Mayoyao and Tuwali (Hapao, Hungduan, Lagawe).
Ifugao is a written language and to some degree is used in formal
education. There is a rich and highly developed body of Ifugao oral literature,
folk mythology, and some of this is now being collected and recorded. In
addition to such literature and also texts of indigenous Ifugao religion,
there are now numerous Christian texts in Ifugao dialects.