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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
joined the Hanseatic Trading League in 1300,
Novgorod on Lake Ilmen witnessed contacts between
the Russian and Middle Saxon languages.
Russian is not only the native language of the vast majority of ethnic Russians
all over the world, but it serves as the native or primary language of many
other people, primarily those in or from the former Soviet republics. It serves
as a lingua franca throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia and Central Asia,
and it has variously influenced the languages of those regions. Russian is
of particular importance in Israel as well. Next to official
Norwegian, Russian is a language of the Norwegian-administered Arctic Ocean island
group of Svalbard,
especially in the town of Barentsburg.
Alekseyevich Romanov, Peter the First
or Peter the Great (1682–1725)—a
admirer of the Netherlands’ culture and
In all, worldwide
over 160 million persons use Russian as a native language at the present time,
and close to 300 million
includes these and those who use Russian as a non-primary language.
As a result
of a long-standing policy of Russocentric education, Russian has to various
extents replaced other languages of the Russian Federation and of former Soviet
Most recently emancipated former Soviet republics are now trying to reverse the repercussions
of this history.
Russian is an East
Slavic language and is thus most closely related to Ukrainian, Belarusian and
Like other East Slavonic languages, Russian uses the Cyrillic script.
It has impressive literary traditions of which particularly numerous 19th-century
novels are world-famous.