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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
Celtic sights abound on Crozon (Kraozon)
Peninsula, the westernmost reach of Brittany and France.
Language information: Breton is used by around 300,000 people, the vast majority of whom live in
France and are above the age of 60. It is the traditional language of Brittany
(Breton Breizh, French Bretagne) in France. It belongs to the Brythonic group of Celtic, which, among the surviving
languages, it shares with Cornish and Welsh.
widely used in Upper Brittany (or Western Brittany, Breizh-Uhzel in Breton, Haute-Bretagne in French), where there are four dialects or dialect groups of it. A somewhat interdialectical
(etrerannyezhel) variant as been emerging. It is usually referred to as KLT, standing for Kerneveg-Leoneg-Tregerieg in Breton, because it is based on these three dialects (which in French are
called Cornouaillais, Léonard and Trégorrois respectively).
(or Eastern Brittany, Breton Breizh-Izel, French Basse-Bretagne), the Breton language is used to a lesser degree. Breton-speaking communities
are smaller and scattered. In many places, Breton came to be displaced by Gallo
known as “Gallo-Roman” or “Gallo-Romance,” a language related to Champenois, French, Norman, Picard, Walloon and other Romance languages of the Oïl type) which is now severely endangered. Gallo and Breton have a long history
status-related characteristics differentiate Breton from its surviving Celtic
(1) It is not used
on an island but is still classified as a Insular Celtic language. The reason
for this is that a long time ago it was imported from Britain, apparently from
Cornwall. It may well have descended from Old Cornish or rather from an old Brythonic
language variety from which both Cornish and Breton descended. However,
distance as well as Gallo, Norman and French influences, and in earliest times
(2) Breton is the
only living Celtic language that does not enjoy official language status. This
is the result of the French government refusing to officially recognize and support
language other than
French, thus being the last European Union member that has not yet ratified the
European Languages Charter. This is in keeping with a tradition that began at
This comes with desparaging
minority languages of France (e.g. patois).
status and lack of incentive for young Bretons (including speakers of Gallo)
places into jeopardy
other than French), despite considerable Breton language activism
and a revival of Breton folk culture
in some circles.